According to Tibetan historical documents, as early as the Tubo period, sailing activities were recorded on the Yarlung Zangpo River and Lhasa River. According to Biography of Padmasambhava, he once crossed the Yarlung Zangpo by wooden boat with a horse's head to reach Samye Monastery; murals in the Samye Monastery, Potala Palace and Borbu Lingka record this.
Boat with Horse's Head
Early Wooden Boat with Horse's Head. According to the illustrations in Tibet's Civilization written by Prof. R. A. Stein, this might be the earliest Tibetan wooden boat containg about 20 people.
Mid-period Wooden Boat with Horse's Head. According to murals in Samye Monastey, wooden boats with a horse's head emerged during the Tubo period able to carry about 30 people. This was much more advanced than early square wooden boats in sailing that had such disadvantages as low speed and inflexibility due to the large resistance from the square structure.
Late Wooden Boat with Horse's Head. There is no clue about the profile of later wooden boats in the murals, but it is presumed they emerged after the decline of the Tubo Kingdom.
Early Wooden Boat with Horse's Head
Foursquare wooden boats with horse's head as a symbol; there were iron-sheet decorative designs inlaid on the outer sides; there was a door on the left side towards the rear; paddles were fitted on both sides, and there was a wind-horse flag pole inserted on the back of the horse head.
Mid-Period Wooden Boat with Horse's Head
There were iron-sheet decorative designs inlaid on the outer sides and an exit door on the left side of the front-half of the boat; the bow had a wooden-sculptured horse's head with wind-horse flags inserted on the back part; two paddles were fitted on both sides of the front-half of the boat, but no boatman steering the boat was seen at the stern according to the murals.
Late Wooden Boat with Horse's Head
The boat body was square, the bow was changed into the shape of triangle, the bottom of bow of bow was rounded, which greatly reduced the resistance from the water and improved speed and flexibility. The horse's head and wind-horse flags as decorations on how were still there. One paddle was fitted on each side of front-half of the bow, and it required 4 to 5 people to paddle powerfully; there was a big paddle on the stern for steering, and one door on each side of the middle part. There were iron-sheet decorative designs with reinforced wooden boats on the outer sides and four corners of the boat body.
At the end of the 1960s, this sort of boat was still available at the Nyanggu Ferry at Zetang Township of Shannan district in the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River. With the opening of the Sichuan-Tibet and the Qinghai-Tibet highways, and the old wooden boats were replaced by wooden power boats. But boats with horse's heads retain their charm.
An old boatman aged over 70, living in the village by Nyanggu Ferry, Zetang, Shannan, told me that this sort of boat was about 10 meters long and five meters wide, containing about 200 people or 70 to 80 yaks. With the help of the old man, we copied a model of the boat one-tenth size, which is presented in the Hall of Folklore of the Tibet Museum.
Today, the boats are square power wooden boats with a round bottom, but small boats with men padding away can still ocassionally be seen at every ferry of the Yarlung Zangbo River and the Lhasa River.
However, since 1959, with many rivers being spanned by bridges, the ferries gradually disappeared.
Yak Hide Rafts
The materials for making yak hide rafts are very simple, mainly timber and yak hide. Timber with good tenacity should be selected to make the frame. Four pieces of yak hide softened in water and with almost all the hair removed, and sewn together. The wet yak hide is then stretched tight over the wooden frame and tied with yak hide rope; it is left to dry in the sun, after which great deal of yak and goat grease is applied to the hide to make it waterproof. The raft can then be launched with a pair of paddles operated by one boatman.
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I would be interrested to join a Lhasa to Kathmandu tour in November (26th novembre). Do you have other tourists on this tour and what would be the price of it for one or two person?
Dear Mr. Si***,
Thanks very much for your inquiry. We currently have one departure date on 26th November for Lhasa to Kathmandu group tour, but there is no person joining in at present. If you are two persons together, we are able to open this tour for you. If you are only one person, here we suggest that you can join our 8 days Tibet Mt. Everest group tour, the major scenic spots of this tour are almost the same as the Lhasa to Kathmandu tour, the difference is that you need to get back to Lhasa and fly from Lhasa to Kathmandu. I will send detailed itinerary to your email, please check it. Best regards.
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